On the 50th anniversary of Humanae Vitae, Bishop Conley wrote a pastoral letter lamenting the low fertility rates in the U.S., blaming them on a “contraceptive culture” that incentivizes couples to delay childbirth and limit the number of children they have. Bishop Conley said these “costs” of the contraceptive culture were predicted by Humanae Vitae and are leading to a self-imposed demographic winter.